338). other light source to examine all food storage areas and food products All three weevils develop as larvae within the grain kernels. Secondary damage is caused by moulds, insects and mites. During large infestations, heat and moisture are produced, leading to colonisation by moulds and mites. knowledge needed for their proper use, a qualified pesticide applicator treated. maize weevil damage. It is a pest of stored maize, dried cassava, yam, common sorghum and wheat. The first study found 100% maize weevil mortality for hermetically sealed containers and the oxygen levels inside them declined from 21% to between 3 and 10%. spite of these precautions, fumigation of the grain will be necessary. For small infestations, freezing for several days and then heating for 24 hours is affective. Rice weevils and maize weevils are about 1/8 inch long and brown. Grain that is to be stored for longer than six months may need a Both adults and larvaefeed on internally on maize grains and an infestation can start in the field (when the cob is still on the plant) but most damage occurs in storage. ALWAYS CHECK WHETHER THE PRODUCT IS FOR TREATING EQUIPMENT, BINS AND BUILDINGS OR FOR TREATING GRAIN FOR HUMAN USE AND ANIMAL FEED. Epub 2016 Nov 3. 1/8- to 3/16-inch long .The maize weevil is similar to the rice Locate the source and destroy it by wrapping the foods in heavy plastic bags or in sealed containers, and burn or bury deeply in the soil. 328). materials. floor and wall surfaces both inside and outside the bin should be Perhaps a method to avoid if seed is for growing. Note, toys can sometimes be filled with grain and act as a source of infestation; so too can dried flowers. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Similar cautions apply as for pyrethroids (above). The thorax is densely Maize is the is also shorter comparatively (Raina, 1970). narrow strip extending down the middle of the dorsal (top) side. Heat damaged maize kernels may have a discolored, wrinkled, and blistered, be puffed and/or swollen, or their seed coats may be peeling off Heat damage most likely comes from drying of grain. Low moisture content (10 % or less) and low tempera­tures (below 15 °C) will prevent weevil development. Remove old kernels, and sweep floors, walls, doors, and vents to collect seeds, grain powder and dust, and burn them before storing the new harvest. Maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Classification. Adults are 3-4 mm long, reddish-brown to black (Photos 1&2), with four light reddish to yellowish spots at the corners of the wing cases (Photo 3&4). Thereafter, weevil damage was heavy in infested plots and negligible in controls. In sub-tropical and tropical countries. Most eggs are laid in the first 4-5 weeks of the female's life which lasts about a year. S. oryzae is universally regarded as one of the most destructive primary pests of stored cereals. The damage caused by the maize weevil S. zeamais on maize landraces, Amarelo Antigo, Asteca, Caiano, Carioca, and Ferrinho, was evaluated by no-choice tests under laboratory conditions. storage on maize weevil mortality, and effect of storage containers physical disturbance on maize weevil mortality. areas, and live insects. Development is about 35 days under optimal cnmditions. source of infestation and quickly get rid of it. The maize weevil has fully developed wings, and is a stronger flyer than the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, and spreads more widely this way. Mating often occurs within 24 hours of adult emergence from grain kernels. ), Angoumois grain moths (Sitotroga cerealella), and the larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus). Description. After the grain protective application of an approved insecticide. After the bin is cleaned, and all needed repairs have been made, the materials and broken kernels. It is a subset of damage including broken or cracked kernels but is identified as its own type of damage by the USDA. It is recorded from Australia, Fiji1, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. The two species look almost identical without magnification. Because of the high toxicity of registered fumigants and technical Infested grain will usually be found heating at the surface, and it may be damp, sometimes to such an extent that sprouting occurs.            (Follow label directions and safety precautions.) If any of these conditions exist, the grain A very destructive weevil, with the adults attacking sound grain, and the adults and the larvae feeding inside them, leaving large cavities and emergence holes. It is slightly larger, up to 1/8-inch long, and like the rice weevil, it is dull reddish brown to black with four red-yellow spots on its back. for garbage removal, or bury deep in the soil. In Tanzania, the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motshulsky causes significant damage, although new studies showed that some maize varieties are more resistant to attack (Rugumamu, 2012). intervals during cooler months for the presence of hotspots, moldy This species attacks both standing crops and stored cereal products, including wheat, rice, sorghum, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, peas, and cottonseed. If using sacks, do not reuse those that stored previous harvests. The maize weevil is very similar to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (see Fact Sheet no. From the CABI says that "Sitophilus zeamais is predominantly found associated with maize grain, whereas Sitophilus oryzae is associated with wheat". Maize weevils (known as Sumpwa sumpwa in Nyanja language) cause large losses in maize grains. Infestations can start in the field, but most damage occurs in storage. A Phosphine: Used as a fumigant; grain is covered by a tarpaulin or in other ways sealed for the duration of the fumigation. The eggs hatch into larvae, which eat the plant material surrounding them. The weevils occur during and after harvest and are most common in storage. The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Neonicotinoids: e.g., imidocloprid. The use of insecticides is discouraged around food There is a withholding period of 1 day before treated grain can be used for human or stock consumption. Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) is an important pest of maize in storage in term of losses caused in food quality and quantity in Nepal. Females lay up to 150 eggs placed in holes chewed into the grain and plugged with a gelatinous substance. Asia, Africa, North, South and Central America, the Caribbean, Europe, Oceania. In order to obtain test insects of known or similar age, these weevils were … If there is an infestation, locate it by putting sticky traps around the room or warehouse where it occurred. infested foods in wrapped, heavy plastic bags or in sealed containers lack of. The most serious insect pests attacking stored maize are the maize and granary weevils (Sitophilus spp. Before grain is placed in a bin, it should be screened to eliminate fine Of development is slightly slower for the rice weevil is found in all warm and tropical of! Following: Routine hygiene treatments weevils ( known as Sumpwa Sumpwa in Nyanja language cause... Weevils, but it is an important pest of stored maize are the maize weevil for! Treating EQUIPMENT, bins and BUILDINGS or for TREATING grain for human consumption September... The room or warehouse where it occurred infestation by this weevil begins in field... In all warm and tropical parts of the most insidious, owing largely to the side view taxonomist. 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