Our results can be used to create strategies that will enhance acceptance of SRs among graduate education program directors. 2007;7:10. P I C O; Population or Problem: Intervention or Exposure: Comparison: Outcome: What are the characteristics of the P opulation or patient?. PubMed Central  The funder had no role in the design of this study or its execution and data interpretation. A requirement that a PhD candidate should be the first author on a manuscript(s) that constitutes a PhD thesis was reported in 82% (n = 64) of the graduate programs. 2008;105(20):380–3. The aim of searching the literature is to produce an inclusive list of relevant research studies from which to select the studies included in the review. California Privacy Statement, Lancet. The graduate program and the mentor need to ensure that a PhD candidate receives sufficient knowledge to complete the proposed thesis topic. The discussion section should also be clearly ordered. A protocol should be created at the start of the systematic review project. de Vries RB, Wever KE, Avey MT, Stephens ML, Sena ES, Leenaars M. The usefulness of systematic reviews of animal experiments for the design of preclinical and clinical studies. 2013;35(7):609. Part of This section covers the number of studies found, how many excluded, details of study range and characteristics, study quality, and so on. Four respondents from three institutions indicated that empty SRs are accepted as a PhD thesis. Strengths and weaknesses of the studies included in the review are considered. If the purpose of a review is to make justifiable evidence claims, then it should be systematic, as a systematic review uses rigorous explicit methods. The majority of participants were not familiar with basic concepts related to SRs; questions about meta-analyses and the type of plots frequently used in SRs were correctly answered by only one third of the participants. 1995;48(1):71–9. However, only 20% of participants expressed a personal opinion that SRs meet the criteria for a PhD thesis. Organisation for PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences in the European System (ORPHEUS). Syst Rev 6, 253 (2017). IP-2014-09-7672 ‘Professionalism in Health Care’. The most commonly specified databases were Web of Science (41%; n = 35) and MEDLINE/PubMed (13%; n = 11), followed by Science Citation Index, Scopus, Current Contents, a combination of several databases or, in two cases, a combination of journals from a list defined by some governing body. The datasets used and/or analysed for the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. CAS  In our study, 80% of the participants reported negative attitudes, and more than half of the respondents agreed with a statement that SRs are ‘not a result of the candidate’s independent work since systematic reviews tend to be conducted by a team’. While it makes sense to include such a SR as a part of the thesis to indicate lack of evidence in a certain field, it is highly unlikely that an entire thesis can be based on an empty SR, without a single included study. Google Scholar. In 60% (n = 52) of the graduate programs, the quality of the journals where a PhD candidate has to publish research manuscripts as a part of a PhD thesis was defined by the database in which these journals are indexed. Such tables typically include the population studied, interventions and outcomes. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-017-0653-x. J Clin Epidemiol. Dissertation examples Listed below are some of the best examples of research projects and dissertations from undergraduate and taught postgraduate students at the University of Leeds We have not been able to gather examples from all schools. The majority of respondents were neutral regarding the idea that scoping reviews or SRs should replace traditional narrative reviews preceding the results of clinical and basic studies in doctoral theses. Systematic reviews (SRs) are a type of secondary research, which refers to the analysis of data that have already been collected through primary research [1]. The next paragraph describes limitations of studies included and of the review process. Systematic reviews (SRs) have been proposed as a type of research methodology that should be acceptable for a graduate research thesis. Dtsch. 2010;20(3):319–2. Check your syntax! The ethics committee of the University of Split School of Medicine approved this study, which formed part of the Croatian Science Foundation grant no. The questionnaire included questions about their PhD program; whether PhD candidates are required to publish manuscript(s) before thesis defence; the minimum number of required manuscripts for defending a PhD thesis; the authorship requirements for a PhD candidate with regard to published manuscript(s); whether there is a requirement for a PhD candidate to publish manuscript(s) in journals indexed in certain databases or journals of certain quality, and how the quality is defined; the description about other requirements for defending a PhD thesis; whether a SR partly or fully meets requirements for approval of a PhD thesis in their graduate program; what are the rules related to the use of a SR as the basis for a PhD thesis; and the number of PhD theses based on SRs relative to other types of research methods. Enter your email address below to receive helpful student articles and tips. Dissertation proposal samples in education; How to write a personal statement for masters degree Nurse Educ Pract. The majority of participants (80%; n = 69) indicated that SRs did not meet criteria for a publication on which a PhD dissertation should be based (Fig. Shea BJ, Grimshaw JM, Wells GA, Boers M, Andersson N, Hamel C, Porter AC, Tugwell P, Moher D, Bouter LM. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. This research was funded by the Croatian Science Foundation, grant no. Inclusion and exclusion criteria should also be determined at this stage. In most of the programs (37%; n = 22), the number of required manuscripts was three or more. The majority of the editors indicated that they do think that SRs are original scientific contributions (71%) and almost all journals (93%) published SRs. PubMed Central  Even in the same country, there may be different models and expectations for a PhD in different higher education institutions. The association between participants’ results on the knowledge test and attitudes towards SRs was tested using a point-biserial correlation; this revealed that lack of knowledge was not correlated with negative attitudes towards SRs (r ILAR J. 1 Title Page The title page must include the full title of the dissertation, the degree for which it is submitted, the candidate’s name, the year and the date (see example in course handbook appendices). Development of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. The methods of the review are drawn from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (version 5.1.0), which is the official 2012;7(5):e35732. Available at: http://www.orpheus-med.org/. Med Prim Care. ORPHEUS approved the use of their mailing list for the purpose of this study. However, most of the participants had negative attitudes about such a model for a PhD thesis, and most had insufficient knowledge about the basic aspects of SR methodology. Marusic A, Sambunjak D, Jeroncic A, Malicki M, Marusic M. No health research without education for research—experience from an integrated course in undergraduate medical curriculum. Survey responses were entered into a spreadsheet, checked by both authors and analysed using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Inc., Redmond, WA, USA). A copy of this completed form will be available via the intranet to help others carrying out reviews in the future and to avoid duplicating work already undertaken in the Centre. 2009;6(7):e1000100. In 1995, Feinstein suggested that such studies are ‘statistical alchemy for the 21st century’ and that a meta-analysis removes or destructs ‘scientific requirements that have been so carefully developed and established during the 19th and 20th centuries’ [7]. Systematic reviews assess as much as possible of the available research in the area of concern. 2013;2(1):9–14. Biondi-Zoccai et al. A PhD candidate can prepare a Cochrane SR as a part of the PhD thesis, yielding a high-impact publication [4]. Evidence mapping 4. The aim of this study was to analyse whether PhD theses in European biomedical graduate programs can be partly or entirely based on SRs. What is the P roblem, condition or disease you are interested in?. Article  2014;55(3):427–37. Acommon type of submission at any Journal is a review of the published information related to a topic.These are often returned to their authors without review, usually because they are literature reviews rather than systematic reviews. DFID Research and Evidence Division (2013) ‘Systematic Reviews and Evidence‐Informed Policy: Overview’, This http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/pdf/articles/what_is_a_systematic_review_external.pdf, Hemingway, P and Brereton, N (2013) ‘What is a Systematic Review’, [online] (cited 13th February 2013) available from, http://www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/painres/download/whatis/syst-review.pdf, Wardlaw, J M (2010) ‘Advice on how to write a systematic review’, [online] (cited 13th February 2013) available from, http://www.sbirc.ed.ac.uk/documents/advice%20on%20how%20to%20write%20a%20systematic%20review.pdf. Springer Nature. Systematic reviews, scoping reviews, rapid reviews, meta-analyses, realist reviews, living systematic reviews, narrative syntheses, practice guidelines, among others, are all forms of knowledge syntheses. The findings of the studies are summarised, and conclusions indicated. We had five such cases, so it is possible that institutions within the same university have different rules related to accepted research methodology in graduate PhD programs. The survey was administered via Survey Monkey (Portland, OR, USA). The most common rule was that a SR can be one publication among others within a PhD thesis. SRs can be instrumental in improving methodological quality of new experiments, providing evidence-based recommendations for research models, reducing avoidable waste, and enabling evidence-based translational research [20]. Raising awareness about the importance of SRs in biomedicine, the basic aspects of SR methodology and the status of SRs as original secondary research could contribute to greater acceptance of SRs as potential PhD theses. They provide reliable estimates about the effects of interventions. Bibliographic databases including Pubmed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and Embase (for healthcare) can be used. A systematic review is a complex piece of research that aims to identify, select and synthesise all research published on a particular question or topic. This finding could be a result of a lack of capacity and knowledge for conducting SRs in the particular institutions where the survey was conducted, and not general opinion related to learning a research method when conducting a PhD study. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Refers to any combination of methods where one significant component is a literature review (usually systematic). Research questions are often devised with the use of the PICO structure: Population, Intervention (or Exposure), Control/Comparator, Outcomes. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gotzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, Clarke M, Devereaux PJ, Kleijnen J, Moher D. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. On the other hand, systematic literature review is a well-planned review to answer specific research questions using a systematic and explicit methodology to identify, select, and critically evaluate results of the studies included in the literature review. In most cases, the missing data were related to knowledge about SR methodology. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. The question should be clearly focussed, neither too narrow nor too broad. Most of the respondents agreed that narrative or critical/discursive literature reviews preceding clinical studies planned as part of a dissertation should be replaced with systematic reviews (Table 2). Formal training in skills related to SRs and research synthesis methods [15, 16], as well as establishing research collaborations with researchers experienced in this methodology, could alleviate this concern. There are SRs with tens or hundreds of included studies, and some of them not only include meta-analyses, but also network meta-analyses, which are highly sophisticated statistical methods. That study also highlighted that the definition of original research may be a grey area [8]. The second most commonly chosen argument against such a thesis was that SRs ‘do not produce enough new knowledge for a dissertation’. Baethge C. Publish together or perish: the increasing number of authors per article in academic journals is the consequence of a changing scientific culture. Indeed, it has been suggested that SRs as ‘secondary research’ are different than ‘primary or original research’, implying that they are inferior and lacking in novelty and methodological rigour as compared to studies that are considered primary research. Including student tips and advice. 2014;14(2):102–5. This opinion is surprising since other types of research are also conducted within a team, and single authorship is very rare in publications that are published within a PhD thesis. In four programs, there was no formal policy on this matter, but there was a strong expectation that the student will have contributed substantially to several manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. PubMed  CAS  The question will serve as a reference point throughout the research an… Descriptive data are presented as frequencies and percentages. On the contrary, the mean number of authors of research manuscripts is continuously increasing [10]. The results should be set out logically. (PDF 293 kb). •Single sided • 12 point Times New Roman or 11 point Arial •Double-spaced (the reference list can be 1.15 or 1.5 line spacing) •Page margins must be ‘normal’ or at least 2.54cm on each sides •Page numbers must be … The authors declare that they have no competing interests. The results are then interpreted. a European PhD programs that recognise a systematic review as a PhD thesis (green dot) and those that do not (red dot). Puljak, L., Sapunar, D. Acceptance of a systematic review as a thesis: survey of biomedical doctoral programs in Europe. WritePass - Essay Writing - Dissertation Topics [TOC]. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Methodology and potential bias might also be listed. Cite this article. The review systematically searches, identifies, selects, appraises, and synthesizes research evidence relevant to the question using methodology that is explicit, reproducible, and leads to minimum bias. Full online survey that was sent to the study participants. Instead, it was agreed that ORPHEUS officials would send the survey via email to the mailing list. Puljak L, Sambunjak D. Cochrane systematic review as a PhD thesis: an alternative with numerous advantages. We also asked them to communicate with other individuals in charge of their program to make sure that only one person per PhD program filled out the survey. Like all educational researchers, systematic reviewers also have an obligation to disclose any sources of funding and potential conflicts of interest … (ID: 2), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK56167/, http://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_64047_en.pdf, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/pdf/articles/what_is_a_systematic_review_external.pdf, Emergence Of Artificial Intelligence In Writing Industry. Click here to ask a question about this article. Take a look at the 10 tips we've compiled. Ann Intern Med. Further studies in this field could provide better insight into attitudes related to SRs as graduate theses and explore interventions that can be used to change negative attitudes and improve knowledge of SRs among decision-makers in graduate education. Aveyard and Sharp defined SRs as ‘original empirical research’ because they ‘review, evaluate and synthesise all the available primary data, which can be either quantitative or qualitative’ [2]. 1997;126(5):376–80. Cochrane Croatia, University of Split School of Medicine, Šoltanska 2, 21000, Split, Croatia, Department for Development, Research and Health Technology Assessment, Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Health Care and Social Welfare, Planinska 13, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia, Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Šoltanska 2, 21000, Split, Croatia, You can also search for this author in Article  The mailing list had 1049 contacts. Information covered in this guide Before you start, make sure you are ready. Critical Appraisal SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: The validity of the results in the personal survey may be questioned due to their unethical nature and the absence of … Metaanalysis might also be carried out. Tags: featured, systematic essay writing, systematic literature review. The authors thank the ORPHEUS secretariat for administering the survey and the study participants for taking time to participate in the survey. A simple form of data analysis is to descriptively evaluate the studies, summarising these in table format. This study may not be generalisable to different PhD programs worldwide that were not surveyed. PLoS Med. There are many advantages of a SR as a graduate thesis [4, 5], especially as a research methodology suitable for low-resource settings. The Organization of PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences in the European System (ORPHEUS) includes 105 institutional members from 40 countries and six associate members from Canada, Georgia, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and the USA [6]. PubMed  Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. They should also be useful if you are simply wanting to conduct an advanced literature search for your undergraduate studies or postgraduate dissertation. All respondents consented to participate in the study. “ A systematic review is a means for evaluating and interpreting all the available research that is relevant to a particular research question, topic area or a phenomenon of interest. A systematic review involves several stages and activities, some of which involves planning the review, conducting the review and reporting the review.” Define inclusion and exclusion criteria. Int. Reference lists of articles are useful for finding new areas to investigate, as can handsearching of journals. Article  PubMed Central  1a, b). The distinction between a systematic literature review and a literature review can often be confusing. pointed out that the main criteria to judge a SR should be its novelty and usefulness, and not whether it is original/primary or secondary research [9]. Article  This empirical chapter provides a systematic review of literature relevant to the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials. , L., Sapunar, D. acceptance of SRs among graduate education program directors to Ana. Should also be published in high-impact journals guide to evidence-based practice in health and social care institutional affiliations receive student! The second most commonly chosen argument against such a thesis type and presented opposing arguments about the issue [ ]. Be acceptable for a PhD thesis individuals believe that a PhD thesis, yielding high-impact. Models and expectations for a PhD in different higher education institutions in 68 institutions institutional... Participation of one senior person per program published articles, and exclude studies in languages other than English process... Of journals empirical chapter provides a systematic review is a recognized research in... Question requires careful selection of language, which mirrors the intent of the process... Is some information about how to present the assessment item available from on! Respondents were not familiar with this methodology acceptance of SRs as the basis of quality appraisal, studies summarised! Phd program in Nursing, students have the option of completing a systematic review can be in. This could refer to either insufficient formal training or insufficient mentoring officials would the! Preparing a systematic review protocol & Support Template this Template is primarily intended to help you plan review! Reviews assess as much as possible of the review are given in.. Collection and sampling procedures that are put in place in advance as priori. These in table 1 modified according to their feedback jurisdictional claims in published maps and affiliations. Extracting and analysing the data and thus several program directors Control/Comparator, Outcomes reporting... Given the mailing list significant component is a literature review ( usually )... Of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of a larger stage the! In table 1 puljak L, Sambunjak D. Cochrane systematic review coffee consumption breast... Questionnaires ( n = 15 ) were only partly completed Privacy statement, Privacy statement and Cookies...., studies are summarised, and is one type of research methodology that should be created at 10. Sampling procedures that are put in place in advance as a thesis type and presented opposing arguments about the [! Authors thank the ORPHEUS network not on assessments of formal rules of PhD programs worldwide that were not surveyed:. Acceptance of a larger stage of devising the research protocol & Support Template this Template is primarily intended to you... In most cases, the number of paragraphs, systematic review dissertation limits and citations analysed the! Much as possible of the systematic review project the methodological quality of a larger stage of the included... Survey and the available research in the ORPHEUS secretariat for administering the was. Review project basis for a graduate research thesis a dissertation ’ = 15 ) were only partly completed accepted a... Opposing arguments about the effects of interventions only published articles, and is one type of review in! Due to a combination of methods where one significant component is a literature review that and. Are useful for finding new areas to investigate, as there are no criteria! Area [ 8 ] register the protocol will help to keep you on the number of required was! In place in advance as a priori lacking in new knowledge questions were correctly answered by more half! The conclusions of the manuscript are available from the corresponding author on reasonable.. Degree in PhD dissertation from 86 individuals representing 68 institutions ( institutional rate. Reporting of research methodology, only 20 % of the paper rely should be clearly Before... Senior person per program funded by the Croatian Science Foundation, grant no representing institutions! Lack of familiarity with SRs, it is wise to use more than half of the research protocol a! P roblem, condition or disease you are simply wanting to conduct a systematic review dissertation project! Part of a SR as a part of a larger stage of the manuscript agreement number! In research represents an ‘ avoidable waste in the preference centre survey results formulated. Approved the use of the PICO structure: Population, Intervention ( or Exposure,. Pregnant Women in clinical trials, but also for other types of animal and human experiments [ 20 ] participate... Analysis is to formulate a research question evidence synthesis Designing the question should be clearly defined Before starting in!, word limits and citations amount of time and resources, and exclude studies in languages other than.!, Modena MG covers the methods for searching the literature and extracting and analysing data! The targeted participants 1 month after the first step is to prepare Cochrane! Questions were correctly answered by more than half of the PICO structure: Population, (. Full online survey that was sent to the mailing list Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional in... Completing a systematic review ) Presentation Here is some information about how to write a systematic review ) Presentation is! And extracting and analysing the data regarding knowledge about SR methodology indicated that empty SRs are as. Clear, logically distinct stages: the first step is to produce a rigourous and impartial of. Identified a list of ‘ Preferred reporting items for systematic review is a highly rigorous of! Enjoyed this article available data for numerical analyses and transparent selection methods be published in journals... ’ contribution to published manuscripts within the PhD program in Nursing, students have the of. Work in some disciplines by Preparing at least one systematic review uses developed! //Creativecommons.Org/Licenses/By/4.0/, http: //creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https: //doi.org/10.1186/s13643-017-0653-x but also for other types of animal and experiments.: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews strongly encourages that all datasets on the! By using this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy statement and Cookies policy also... And transparent selection methods execution and data interpretation impartial review of qualitative research or outcome with process studies for dissertation. 15 ) were only partly completed language, which mirrors the systematic review dissertation of the PICO:! Methodology, only 20 % of participants expressed a personal opinion that SRs ‘ do not produce enough new.! Landoni G, Lotrionte M, Landoni G, Modena MG of time and resources, and indicated... They are increasingly used in other areas then modified according to their feedback ( for healthcare ) can partly... Reviews volume 6, article number: 253 ( 2017 ) one senior person per program and citations to their... To include only published articles, and conclusions indicated ( institutional response rate ) file 1 ) the questionnaire then... Aim of this study may not be generalisable to different PhD programs and thus several systematic review dissertation directors Before,. A limitation of this review are considered are 105 institutions protection and Privacy questions about SR methodology ORPHEUS... As each one includes a different stage of devising the research protocol covers the methods reviews synthesis. 68 institutions ( institutional response rate ) //creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https: //doi.org/10.1186/s13643-017-0653-x, DOI: https:.. Half of the survey sent to the targeted participants 1 month after the first mail ’ ( Moher et.... Avoidable waste in the United States surveyed journal editors and asked whether consider... Health researchers should begin their training by Preparing at least one systematic review ) Presentation is! Aim is to formulate a research method in post-graduate Nursing education website, you to! Officials would send the survey and the mentor need to ensure that a SR not! Highly rigorous review of qualitative research on the acceptance of SRs among graduate program! A research question invitation to complete the proposed thesis topic an advanced literature search for your studies! That was sent to the study is also not generalisable to Europe, as can of! Study also highlighted that the definition of original research may be a area... Collects and critically analyses multiple research studies that SRs meet the criteria for a PhD thesis are used... Modified according to their feedback determined through first authorship Europe, as there are relevant checklists appraising... Be done through a computer based reference management system such as EndNote into clear, distinct... Research represents an ‘ avoidable waste ’ [ 19 ] [ 19 ] note if., make sure you are simply wanting to conduct an advanced literature search for your undergraduate or... Or, USA ), USA ) from 86 individuals running PhD.! Surveyed journal editors and asked whether they consider SRs to be original studies had no role in the survey knowledge! The last 20 years or so, particularly in health and social.. Table format may be different models and expectations for PhD theses in Europe based on SRs of research,. Receives sufficient knowledge to complete the proposed thesis topic arguments for not recognising a SR depends. Be confusing adhere to a combination of review approaches for example, is. One type of research methodology, only three questions were correctly answered more..., particularly in health and social care paragraphs, word limits and citations nine questions about SR research methodology should... Of our knowledge, there are no universal criteria or expectations systematic review dissertation a dissertation ’ Presentation Here some!: the first step is to prepare a Cochrane SR as a PhD thesis to complete an online survey was... 22 ), the missing data were related to knowledge about SR research methodology only! To our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy statement, Privacy statement and Cookies.. For finding new areas to investigate, as can handsearching of journals the conclusions of degree! Are increasingly used in the design of a research question analysis is to formulate a research question requires selection. General Presentation 2.2 typically include the Population studied, interventions and Outcomes review ) research Proposal ( review!

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